Murkett, R et al., ‘Nicotine Products Relative Risk Assessment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,’
- Vaping, nicotine pouches and nicotine replacement therapies are 99.75% less risky than cigarettes.
- The study performed a systematic review of 320 studies to develop a relative risk hierarchy for nicotine-containing products.
- Products were scored from 0 to 100 (low to high risk) based on their toxin emissions and disease risk.
- Key findings:
- Cigarettes carried a score of 100 and are the most risky way to use nicotine.
- Vapes, tobacco-free nicotine pouches and nicotine inhalers scored less than 0.25 on the scale and are the least risky way to use nicotine.
- The risk of using vapes and nicotine pouches is only marginally higher than non-nicotine users, which score 0 on the scale.
- Heat-not-burn products have a score of between 3 and 3.5.